1. This site uses cookies. By continuing to use this site, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Learn More.

Nicholas Muller

5ì?¢¹
{?(®@h®}|×ÇbyÝ|ïvè®x§*†åz|Æz¹šŸ+(ž‡É¢?§Z)azY#¢Wlš+ajw@žvŒj¸š*W›mê̺Y^¬Æ«®'×Î<?X³h [#ç!´6®‚?^¬š?žv°‰÷¨|Yh#éÜxªèy·«"}|ç˜^²ç?yç^t#LºY^®éÝz¸b²Œ'©ž?‹§uêڝٚžçÚrÛ«zº?²—¥µê쵫nzƧuÉhrG?±ë0ŠØbš+Z¶*'nº'Íçâž+!zÀÞ²('yÙ¨#ëaj}zé؟}êޞ×%¡É?zÈ#žÁâ±»¬Šw¬³?¬²ç?yç^u¼‰Èh•«?ºY^®Ä¨žÀ¨¢xb±×š¶?(º·?J˜#¶W«±©Ý?¨¥{+™êâq©Â–‡$™©?®Æ§uf#r?š‘êì6'!¢V¬2éez¶§v?¬²‰ì~º&×Ît¶}ÓIšuç?²Ùžµ©\–‡$q«?±©Ý~º'¶Çë¢f¦zÖ¥²‡íz¶§vj+z™bi¹^¶?§¥ì-z³è²È›—&¡Š?ey§\¢{^žÐ-¶?¬¶)ž¶?«{?¬ž†¥ºh§ºfîµ¼#…ë¬z‡Ú•æm«?vg#jX^r‹¥vf¤zkœ†ÈZ®—«jw[zÛ^#×#j)\jËbž?-…©áyÊ.•Û¬Šx?jËb®‰ÂjËb®‰Ü†)eyÛh¢«¢rIr¶ˆ?¶Ø^¦º#yËb¢z?²‰ž¡øb³
'uêߺZZ¶×«žÁk¢c@X ºY^¶)ößÆ«¶'%y¼‰Šd¡k ̺Y^#ÉhrK0z·¦j¹?µç[É©e¶?¦j:+
‰çyËbrë\–‡$™©î}§-º·«³?#†Ø^Š¹¨½éžžÛ?ŠÛ^vÚ-…ã.–W«q«-Šx,N?«{?«zX¤z\š‚·š¶{¦mêîÚ?ºg§µçZ²Ø^q«-Šx'ºfÞ®È(º›h÷M®†Ún\#…騲Û(º?miû^®+?jËbž «×~mŠÙ^u¶¥–™ZÉêìr*Ük_:ð‹b±ªÞj[b™ç?¦Ë¥z‡Þj¹r?g«‰Æ§i8^#謢w¨Ø¬¦V²jШ¢—«²Ú0ž)í…àZ±æږXZ–Z?}©ž>'-º·¬Šw%¹×š
êbuƬ¶)àç°è–˜bÆ¬¶)àëV§ºyڙç\–‡$Â+a"x+j?¦v&¥jwf¢÷¦z{]jם×Ï{o#br?%jÃ.–W«±*'°*?×?²Ø§ƒ]ùm©e¦V²z»?…éZ²ÚbrÛ«z+?6'!¢V¬2éez»?¢{"®‰ÜjÇ°ŠØoŠÈ›•ç¬qª^™éí²('yÙ¨½éžžÒ-‹¥u·¢ž×«zËbž?h±çšq«Z–ˆ.z‡ð…«m…ë(žÇ(š–§ÉÆ«®'!©l¢?¯yªZ®Z+rZ?“?#…«"‚wš‹Þ™éí¥éݺ[¦jwmi¹^

This page has been seen 11,746 times.

Current Discussion: Main discussion

  1. eckmill

    eckmill Guest

    A good Wiki article. However, the second paragraph, taken verbatim from Shawn's Bulletin article is misleading.

    (quote)Nicholas Muller and his sons, from 1850 to 1900, made cast metal clock cases and fronts from a metal softer and more pliable than pewter. Possibly a high lead content. At this time there was no aluminum, but by the use of a lead based metal he could make much sharper and better detail castings than he could using cast iron. Cast iron chilled too quickly to get the projection of some of his wonderful patterns. (From NAWCC Bulletin # 238, article by Jim Shawn)(unquote)

    According to a succeeding Bulletin article "Imitation Bronzes" #252, a reprint from The Keystone, Sept. 1892, describes Muller's process as a zinc metal casting process, not a lead based alloy.

    I suspect Muller used a "slush casting" method to produce the hollow statuary.Zinc and zinc-antimony-magnesium based alloys are still used today for die casting.

    Too, Shawn's article suggests that cast iron "chilled" too quickly to get finely detailed castings. The problem with iron castings is shrinkage in the mould that results in lost detail. Zinc, tin, pewter (tin-copper alloy) don't have the severe shrinkage of iron castings.

    Shawn's Bulletin article does not address the coloration of Muller's statuary but the later Bulletin article, a reprint from the Keystone hints at electro-imitation bronze technology as being introduced in the US by Muller.

    Respectully, Les Lesovsky