This small article owes in the most part. The hard work by Cedric Jagger and Enid M. Barraud, Their efforts to bring to notice the firm of Barraud, and Barraud and Lund. Their three books are required reading for those who follow, or collect items of this fine firm of watch and chronometer makers.
“Barraud the story of a family” by E.M. Barraud.
“PAUL PHILIP BARRAUD” by Cedric Jagger.
“PAUL PHILP BARRAUD The supplement” by Cedric Jagger.
We should remember here, that the books and periodicals of the past are the stepping stones to the future.
The above did not have the benefit of the modern computer, so finding examples of the work of Barraud & Co. Was in the main from museums, private collections, or the auction houses. All I have done is to make a search on the net for pieces not in the lists supplied by Mr. Jagger.
The first list of chronometers made by the firm of Barraud before their partnership with John Richard Lund. Those in the books start with number 9 and go up to 6303. It might help here to quote Mr. Jagger.
Note. “The total absence of chronometers numbered in the 4,000´s must be indicative, although of what it is, is difficult to say. It seems possible that instruments numbered 5,000 upwards were not of Barraud domestic manufacture, since many of them are inscribed “Corrected and/or Adjusted by Barraud”; if this is true, then the reverse inference is that numbers up to and including the 3000´s were made by the firm.”
(It could be the 4000´s were duplex-semi-chronometers with chronometer balances.( See 4591 has an example).
At the time Mr. Jagger was writing only 9 and 10 were known to exist, I will let Mr. Jagger explain: “Barraud in part, in consort with Howells and Jamison, in setting up in opposition to the consortium of makers employed by the younger Mudge to make chronometers after his father´s pattern has already been chronicled (Chapter II, passim); but, when the original work was published, only two of Barraud´s machines, numbered 9 and 10, had come to light. There is a presumption, of course, that nos. 1 to 8 were made and now, there is some indication of the existence of another. A chronometer described as “Barraud 11” is recorded as having been on board H.M.S. Dee (Capt) Samuel Chambers, on the Halifax station. From 1817 onwards-a terminal date is not given. The same list also includes Barraud 10, on board H.M.S. Africaine, on the India station, under the command of Richard Raggett and Thomas Graham during 1810-11 whiles by 1816 the same instrument, in company with Arnold No. 294, and was aboard H.M.S. Alceste on the China station, under the command of C.O. Bridgeman, of Brazil. While we know that Barraud 10 still exists, it would be interesting indeed to know the whereabouts and condition of Barraud 11.
It must be said here that P.P.Barraud was not above taking in old stock and refurbishing them, and this was certainly the case of the company when P.P. Barraud´s sons took over the firm. It was also the case when the firm became Barraud and Lund.
In the late 1790´s it was the time of the precision pocket watch, and though the lever watch was nearing fifty years old, and had been used by Breguet with success in France, it seems to have been ignored by many makers in England till around 1812-15. There were men like Edward Massey and George Savage, Samuel Smith and a few others who made lever watches in small numbers before 1820, but that story is waiting to be told in full. So other than the chronometer, it would appear they turned to the Duplex for precision watches for the pocket.
There is also a large question about the lever escapement. There was a continuation after Emery copied the first lever watch made by Thomas Mudge, though only by a few men of more than normal capability could make them. This is another story that needs to be told in full, though there are indications that Jonathan Betts is working on it. I am sure there will be some surprises there.
We now move onto the article written by David Penney and Valerie Finch, on William Howell´s watchmaker in the June issue of AHS 1987. This then proves there was indeed a number 14. And I quote from this article.
Howell´s Barraud, Jamison, Time-Keeper No. 14 it shows an “improvement” upon the Mudge plan, the compensation curb being replaced by an “Arnold” type balance. This is different to that fitted to H.B.J. No.9 and would seem to show a continuous development of the compensation balances fitted to the series of chronometers. Mudge Junior meanwhile steadfastly retained the compensation curb, (See Marvin E. Whitney´s book “The Ships Chronometer” published 1985 by the American Watchmakers Institute U.S.A. which has further illustrations).
If we now take a look at the first list of chronometers since Mr. Jagger´s book, and go as far as 100, it now looks like this below.
No. 1 Howell´s & Pennington- no date probably the one ordered by Graf Bruhl.
No. 2 Howell´s & Pennington 1795, at one time with Admiral Sir George Kieth Elphinstone.
No. 3 Howell´s & Pennington bought by the Admiralty-also at one time with the above Admiral 1795.
No. 4Howell´s & Pennington Bought by the Admiralty issued to Admiral Lord Hugh Seymore. (NMM)
No. 5 Ex-Admiralty, chronometer, now in the Royal Navel Museum Portsmouth 1795.
No. 6 The so called Antique Roadshow chronometer, in private hands (See later). (NMM)
No. 7 is one of the completely original instruments, now in the clockmakers collection in the Science museum.
No. 8. National Maritime Museum Greenwich (NMM)
No. 9 not listed in the supplement, but discussed in book 1 with photographs. British Horological Institute.
No. 10 Howell´s, Barraud & Jamison 1796 (NMM)
No. 11 Known to have been issued to H.M.S. Dee.
No. 12. National Maritime Museum Greenwich (NMM)
No. 14 Smithsonian Institute Washington DC.
No. 16 Pennington, Pendleton & Others 1796 (NMM)
No. 17 Pennington, Pendleton & Others 1797
No. 18 Pennington, Pendleton & Others 1796
No. 22 Pennington, Pendleton & Others 1796.
No. 24 Pennington, Pendleton & Others 1796
No. 26 Pennington, Pendleton & Others 1798
No. 27 Pennington, Pendleton & Others 1797
For more information on the early chronometers, there is the new book by Jonathan Betts MBE, Marine Chronometers at Greenwich, where a more complete picture of these very early Mudge copies can be found.
No.32. Deck watch signed Barraud London on top plate. “Z” balance by Arnold. C1800.
No. 55. Pocket chronometer. 1796. Known to have been repaired by Kullberg 15th. Sept. 1874
No. 78. Type unknown. Was in possession of East India Company. Sent for repair in 1827. N.M.M.C.I.
There is also a No. 101 in the Clockmakers Company, but Mr. Jagger thought not a Barraud number.
Other chronometers found in the first series are,
No. 161. Early Type Duplex, Movement only. (David Penney archive)
No. 196 This chronometer is discussed by Jagger in book 1 and attributed to Jamison, this now seems unlikely, and it is thought it was made for Barraud by Pennington.
No. 202. Pocket chronometer HM 1798 London. On dial Barraud Cornhill-Jamison Portsea. Arnold detent. ( Info Christies).(See below).
No. 206. Sold Bonham´s, Re-cased in a gold case with London HM for 1879. Large Z Balance with helical spring, Arnold spring detent.
No. 207. This box chronometer belonged to a Capt. Proctor, and it ended up in a very nice Bracket Clock. Full story on Barraud invaluable site. (Photograph Below in the clocks section)
No. 277. Silver cased pocket chronometer, Arnolds Z balance and spring detent, c1811 (info Christies).
No. 436. Page 287 in AHS Winter 1998. Sold by David Penney. He writes; “A rare Mudge–type one day chronometer by Barraud to have an Arnold spring detent escapement (In Slot) and Z balance, but retaining Mudge´s highly unusual barrel system and reverse train to fourth wheel. Three piece brass-bound mahogany box and beautifully engraved, silvered dial. Main spring signed “Blackburn Oct. 1811.
(It´s not impossible to think that 436 could be one of the Pennington, Howell´s Barraud, and Jamison chronometers, that was not finished in the 1790´s but finished and re-numbered later).
No. 543. Pocket chronometer Silver case HM 1811. Given by the Earl of Eglington to Capt. Thomas Clarke. Signed Barraud´s, Cornhill London. (Info Sotheby´s Sept. 29-2015).
No. 527. Barraud Cornhill London, Arnold´s spring detent escapement. HM London 1810. With gilt finished movement, chain fusee, Arnold´s spring detent escapement with ruby locking stone, bimetallic Z balance with compensation weights, blued steel helical spiral, free sprung regulator with diamond end-stone.
No. 541. Pocket chronometer HM 1828 London gold case.(Re-cased?). (Info Bonham´s May 2007). Pennington Balance. Earnshaw, escapement
No. 587. Arnold early type boxed chronometer c1815 (Very good information in David Penney´s archive, just put “ Barraud 587 “on Google).
No. 639. Eight day boxed chronometer. Inner winding key, Arnold Z Balance, Earnshaw spring detent. Three tier Mahogany box. (See Below). (More photographs on 639 later)
No. 721. Gold pair-case pocket chronometer. Earnshaw spring detent. C1815. Beetle and poker hands. On dial 721 Barraud´s London. (Info Dr. Crott archive).
No. 762 Chronometer pocket watch Barraud Cornhill London. In a 18K gold case HM. 1873 (Info Bonham´s)
No. 921. 2 day boxed chronometer. Barraud´s London on dial (Info Gerald Marsh Antiques)
No.982. Now in the British Museum came with the Illbert collection) (very much like 639 above).
We have now reached the first thousand chronometers in numbers not in Mr. Jagger´s books (Except those that were of special interest to this story). Mr. Jagger´s last number in the supplement is 997, which gives a rough date of 1828/29. The next number is 1501, and this is what Mr. Jagger had to say on this subject.
Note. The original check list included an eight-day marine chronometer numbered 999, and this list resumes at 1501, but neither list contains any chronometers bearing intermediate numbers. After this length of time, it seems well-nigh certain, that there is a deliberate gap of over five hundred numbers in the series, but the reason for this is not understood at present.
The above diagram is from an article by Christopher Wood in the “Clocks Magazine” Sept. 1997 page 21; I have put it here because I want to re-produce an interesting letter to the AHS in March issue of 1964, “An Interesting Barraud chronometer” by ROBERT H.A. MILES.
Some time ago I purchased a marine chronometer signed “Barraud, Cornhill, London” and numbered 210. In the course of a detailed examination I discovered that it had undergone considerable modification, probably at the time of manufacture. The movement is very similar to one previously described by George Foster (H.J. Vol. 102. No. 1223. p.498. (Aug. 1960). And fitted with a Mudge “reversed train”. Apart from the Arnold escapement it bears a remarkable similarity to those chronometers made to Mudge´s design by a group employed by his son. I have now come to the conclusion that both these chronometers were in fact originally fitted with a Mudge constant force escapement. When this was found to be both too difficult and too expensive to complete and adjust, it was removed and replaced by the simpler Arnold escapement and compensation balance. The trains are of the highest quality and would be too valuable to scrap. The back plate of number 210 has a considerable number of plugged holes, and these have been found to be in the correct positions for a Mudge escapement as used in the chronometer numbered 22 and signed “Pennington, Pendleton and others”. The modifications are not at all obvious since the holes have been plugged with a brass similar to that of the plates, which have been subsequently refinished. Mr. Foster has informed me that his movement shows some signs of a similar modification. I have also learnt of the existence of a third Barraud chronometer of this type. It should be recalled that P.P.Barraud was one of those who went into partnership with William Howells of Bristol and Jamison of Portsea to make Mudge chronometers. Thomas Mudge, jun., had engaged Howells, Pennington, Pendleton and Coleman to make chronometers to his father´s design and it has been suggested that about 20 were made. I have noted the existence of about ten of these, apart from those signed by Barraud after modification.
Another point I would like to raise is the peculiar train used by Mudge. This rotates in the opposite direction from normal and the hands are driven through reversing wheels. I cannot believe that Mudge. In spite of his love of doing things superbly, but by most complicated methods, adopted this system merely to gain the advantage of having the train pulling on the same side of the fusee as the centre wheel He must have realised that this result could be obtained by simply reversing the relative positions of the fusee and the main-spring barrel (see”The Mudge marine timekeeper” by R. Good, H.J., Vol. 103 No.1239.p. 773). An alternative explanation is that he objected to the thick pivot on the second’s wheel needed to support the second’s hand, and the lack of an end-stone. In order to ensure a good bearing at this point and to overcome the loss of oil along the pivot he went to the extent of adding another wheel. Since this wheel is merely an idler and not part of the actual train there is little or no force on the pivots and lubrication would be comparatively unimportant. I would be interested to know of any readers have any other views on this point, and if anyone has information on the whereabouts’ of Mudge chronometers on converted Barraud chronometers.
Mudge copy No. 14 by Howell´s, Barraud and Jamison. (Courtesy of the Smithsonian Institute Washington DC)
I find the re-mark (“I have noted the existence of about ten of these, apart from those signed by Barraud after modification”) quite strange. Cedric Jagger´s book “Paul Philip Barraud” came out only four years later, in 1968, and he could only find two of the early Mudge copies, has we have seen above. Or was Mr. Miles talking about chronometers altered after the first twenty? (Now 27)
Another remark by Mr. Miles mentions that Thomas Mudge jun. had engaged Howells, Pennington, Pendleton and Coleman to make chronometers to his father´s design and it has been suggested that about 20 were made. It could well be that the unknown Coleman was George Colman an ex apprentice of William Howells. On page 173 of Dennis Moore´s book “British Clockmakers & Watchmakers Apprentice Records 1710-1810 “File number 32/121. We have William Howells mas. George Coleman app. Citizen & Clockmaker of London. Mx. 2 Nov. 1784, 7 years 20 Pounds. So 21 years old in 1791 the first Mudge copies 1795/96. Coleman is then 26/27 years old. This could well fit. I believe the coincidence is too strong to ignore and George Coleman) sometimes, Colman) is the one who worked on the Mudge copies, for Mudge jun.
Authors Note .In Anthony G. Randall´s book “The Times Museum Catalogue of Chronometers” He writes Barraud and Jamison were in partnership for a time, together with Joseph Watkins, Charles John Cope, William Frodsham and Robert Best. More information is required on these partnerships- were Pendleton ,Pennington and Coleman just paid workers and not partners or were they suppliers like Earnshaw.
Further investigation brings the above list into question. This list was one given to the Board of Longitude by Thomas Earnshaw (1804) for those who would support his claim for a reward that he invented the spring detent. The only difference being the addition of George Jamison. (This is in Vaudrey Mercer´s book “The Frodsham´s” page 13). There no indications in Mercer´s book that there was some kind of partnership between William Frodsham and P.P.Barraud. (Since writing the quote from Mr. Randall-I have found that the partnerships of William Frodsham and Paul Philip Barraud´s son (With others) were later, and were in fact persons, who were involved in the Ingold “British Watch & Clock-making Company” 4th November, 1842. A letter published in The Morning Herald, signed by Parkinson and Frodsham, Barraud and Lund, McCabe & Co., James Murry, Brockbank and Atkins, Clement Harris & Co. John Carter and Hunter and Edward´s which disassociated themselves from the company and denied having inspected Ingold´s machinery.
No.639. Inner movement.
So the lists start here again.
No. 1532. 2 day marine chronometer c1825, bone ring with number on the front of the mahogany box (Derek Roberts Antiques)
No. 1701. Barraud 41 Cornhill London, 2 day marine chronometer. Dial same as No. 1724 (Info Schmidt´s 8th. May 201).
No.1724, Strangely this chronometer is said to be derelict in September 1978, by Mr. Jagger. I think someone gave him the wrong information. This chronometer first came in an exhibition of chronometers by Asprey´s 7-8 December 1987. The full report by Christies is reproduced at the end of this article, with photographs of Barraud & Lund´s correcting weights.
No. 1732 In Mr. Jagger´s book could be 8 day or 2 day. In fact 2 day marine. (Now at NMM)
No. 2036, Barraud 42 Cornhill, makers to the Royal Navy, 2 day chronometer (Private collection)
No. 2154. Barraud 41 Cornhill for sale on Ebay- 2 day marine. (Ebay 02/02/2014)
No. 2454. 8 day Box chronometer with later correcting weights (info Dr. Crott 15 Nov. 2003)
No. 2635. Barraud Cornhill Makers to the Royal Navy, 43 Cornhill London. 2day Chronometer (Info Antique Research)
No. 2672 Barraud London, 2 day marine, with a Lund correcting weight (NMM)
No. 2723 Two day marine Barraud 41 Cornhill (Sold 13/06/2012 New York)
No. 2736. Barraud maker to the Royal Navy 56 hour chronometer with correcting weights. (Antiquorum Archive).
No. 2810. Barraud & Lund London 2 day Marine. /Info. Constantine Parvulesco “Zeit Und Meer”) (Time and Sea)
No. 3148 Barraud Makers to the Royal Navy, 41, Cornhill, London c1875. Though this is in Jagger´s book, there was little information. We now know it was sold by Bonham´s Jan. 2nd. 2010.
No. 3300 Barraud maker to the Royal Navy 56 Hour chronometer (Private collection)
No. 3618 8 day marine chronometer Barraud & Lund´s. c1880. No fraction number “Antiquorum”
No. 4305. On dial of the movement 4699. Silver cased Duplex HM 1846 (Bonham´s 13/04/2014)
No. 4591. c1814 Later cased. Duplex with Z Balance. (Info Bonham´s 02/12/ 20ß7)
No. 5034 Barraud Cornhill London. 56 Hour. (Info West Sea C0´s Hall of Fame)
No. 5256. Barraud 41 Cornhill. C1848- With compensation weight. (Info Sotheby´s New York)
No. 5159. Barraud 42, Cornhill. London. Two day marine (Skinner Archive)
The chronometer 3045 is listed in C. Jagger´s supplement has seen but no information. Later the chronometer was sold by the firm of “Tobias Birch fine antique clocks” here is what they had to say.“Mahogany two day marine chronometer, the 3 ½ Inch silvered dial signed Barraud, Maker to the Royal Navy, 41 Cornhill London, No. 3045 with subsidiary seconds dial and state of wind indicator. Blued steel hands the two day fusee movement with Earnshaw spring detent escapement cut bimetallic balance with segmental compensation weights and blued steel helical balance spring, brass gimbals and bowl.
The three tier mahogany box with brass drop handles, ivory roundel to the front inscribed Barraud 3045. Original type winding key and original mahogany outer travelling box with leather straps.
I am so pleased with this little watch I just had to put it on here somewhere. George Jamison-Portsea.
Moving on to watches & chronometers i n the two series. All Barraud London till about number 700 then changes to Barraud & Lund.
No. 2/503 Silver Pair-case HM London 1820 Barraud´s Cornhill. Pocket chronometer. (Info. Gardiner & Houlgate, Bath June 2, 2005). The is, in Cedric Jagger´s supplement, but the information now given brings it up to date. Whereas it was in a museum, it is now on the open market.
No. 2/527 An early 19th century, chronometer. Movement only. In a later custom made case. Barraud´s Cornhill. (Info Bonham´s)
No. 2/591 Silver cased pocket chronometer HM London 1827. Earnshaw spring detent. (Info Bonham´s)
No. 2/626 Barraud´s Cornhill London pocket chronometer (Info. Bonham´s)
No. 2/630 Barraud, Cornhill, London. Pocket chronometer , Earnshaw spring detent (Info Dr. Crott)
No. 2/717 Barraud & Lund 8 day chronometer with Barraud integral winder (Info AW-Co Forums)
No. 2/753 Barraud & Lund Cornhill, London Duplex type chronometer (Tom Mcintyre)
No. 2/762 Barraud & Lund Cornhill London 8 day chronometer (Info Bonham´s)
A Barraud & Lund with correcting weight (Courtesy of Tom Mcintyre)
No. 2/847 Chronometer HM London 1845 Later up-graded by the firm, now with a perpetual calendar. (AHS Winter 1988)
No. 2/901 was on the convict vessel “William Jardine” 1850´s now in “The National Museum of Australia).
No. 2/963 8 day boxed chronometer. Ebay 2014 Sold 19th. Feb. €14,994,30
No. 2/1530 Movement only Lever escapement. Bonham´s 2014 (In a group of 5 movement).
No. 2/2172 Barraud & Lund Re-cased Gold case HM 1878 Lever (NAWCC Board “Barraud Dynasty”)
No. 2/2418 Pocket chronometer in 18K gold case HM 1893 (The Net)
No. 2/2448 Barraud´s & Lund Half Hunter 18K HM London 1893 Single Table Roller (Info Fellows)
No. 2/2886 Barraud & Lund Movement only Lever (NAWCC Board “Barraud Dynasty”)
No. 2/2959 Barraud & Lund The quarter plate movement Lever escapement flat four arm balance (Private Collection).
No. 2/3146 Barraud & Lund Savage Two Pin Escapement movement only (Private Collection)
No. 2/3166 Barraud & Lund Savage Two Pin Escapement, Movement only (Private Collection)
No. 2/3320 Barraud & Lund Movement, Dovetail Lever. Ebay (David Penney Archive)
No. 2/4173 Barraud & Lund Savage Two Pin with brass dial (Private Collection)
No. 2/4864 Barraud & Lund Gold 18K case HM London 1890 case-maker JW (John Woodman)
No. 2/5491 Barraud & Lund Gold Case HM London 1845 Savage two pin (Tom Mcintyre)
No. 2/6407 Barraud & Lund
No. 2/6422 Barraud & Lund Movement only, Duplex escapement (Ebay 9th. Sept. 2013).
No. 2/6544.Barraud & Lund ¾ Plate Lever movement (Ebay 2015)
No. 2/8684 Barraud & Lund London Gold case HM London 1862 Lever escapement (Info Tennant´s)
No. 2/8941 Barraud & Lund London Gold cased Lever HM 1864 Compensation Balance (Info Christies).
No. 2/9100 Barraud & Lund London 18K Gold Case. (invaluable Archive)
No. 2/9355 Barraud & Lund London 18K Gold case HM London 1873 Lever Escapement. (Info Invaluable archive)
No. 2/9587 Barraud & Lund London Double Roller Lever escapement Movement only (David Penney Archive)
No. 2/9993 Barraud & Lund London c1870´s American gold case (Info and photograph from Tom McIntyre)
No. 2/9997 Barraud & Lund Half hunter case ¾ Plate movement (Invaluable Archive)
The Third Series
No. 3/268 Barraud & Lund London 18K Gold case HM London 1874 (Millar´s Antiques).
No. 3/1153 Barraud´s & Lund 41 Cornhill London. HM London 1872 (David Penney 2018)
No. 3/1260 Barraud´s & Lund´s 18K gold case HM London 1879. Lever Repeater(Info Christies Geneva)
No. 3/1262 Barraud´s & Lund´s 41 Cornhill c1879 (Info Invaluable Archive)
No. 3/1459 Barraud´s & Lund´s 18K half hunter case HM London 1873 Lever escapement (Info Ranfft Watches)
No. 3/1600 Barraud´s & Lund´s Minute repeater HM London 1874 Made by Usher & Cole their number 16826 (courtesy Tom McIntyre)
No. 3/1010 Barraud´s & Lund´s 41 Cornhill London 18K gold case HM London 1872 (Tom McIntyre)
No. 3/1679 Barraud´s & Lund´s centre seconds, 18K gold case. (Invaluable Archive)
No. 3/1802 Barraud´s & Lund London 18K gold open faced case HM Chester 1823 case maker TH&co. (Thomas Helsby & Co) (Info Sworder´s Fine Art)
No. 3/1993 Barraud´s & Lund London Key less Cylinder 18K gold case. (WWW.)
No. 3/2307 Barraud´s & Lund 41 Cornhill London up & down dial (Info Bonham´s)
No. 3/2267 Barraud´s & Lund London movement only up & down dial (Ebay 07/08/2014
No. 3/2389 Barraud´s & Lund London Full hunter silver case (Ebay 07/08/2014
No. 3/3146 Barraud´s & Lund London Single table roller Movement only (David Penney Archive)
No. 3/3242 Barraud´s & Lund London 18K gold case Lever escapement (Info Gardiner & Houlgate Bath)
No. 3/3578 Barraud´s & Lund´s London Lever gold cased HM London 1886 (Info Neale´s Dec. 14 2006)
No. 3/3588 Barraud´s & Lund Movement only (Ebay 10th Jan. 2014 (Sold for 12 pounds)
No. 3/3954 Barraud´s & Lund London 18K gold case HM London 1889 number on dial. (Info?)
No. 3/4336 Barraud´s & Lund Cornhill London 14 Bishopsgate Street London .(WWW.)
No. 3/4452 Barraud´s & Lund Cornhill London 18K gold case HM 1891 case-maker JW English lever going barrel (Info Invaluable Archive)
No. 3/4534 Barraud´s & Lund Cornhill London Gold cased Carousel Sale in Hamburg 10/04/2014 (Info Cortrie Hamburg).
No. 3/4751 Barraud´s & Lund Cornhill London 18K gold case (Vintage Watch Store)
No. 3/5024 Barraud´s & Lund Cornhill London ¾.Plate lever movement (David Penney Archive) Note this watch was in a gold case when sold in 1908.
No. 3/5880 Barraud´s & Lund Silver pair case Birmingham HM 1834 Converted to Lever (NAWCC Board)
No. 3/6391 Barraud´s & Lund Cornhill London 18K gold case, Case-maker FT. ¾. Plate lever minute repeater.
No. 3/3839 Barraud & Lund 49 Cornhill London 18K gold case HM 1888 Lever (David Penney 2018)
]Barraud´s & Lund Photographs Here.(Press Strg then click on blue letters).
We now move onto the first series of watches, signed Barraud London or Barraud Cornhill London.
No. 1113 Barraud, London Verge escapement. Movement only see more information by David Penney Below.
NB: Jagger includes with date an unnumbered watch of 1756 in his book, but this is too early for Paul Philip (he was born in 1752) and the watch would be from the time of his father, Francis-Gabriel. Judging by photographs, it also looks to be of typical Swiss manufacture (in English style). All Paul Philip Barraud´s genuine output ( his name appears on many Swiss fakes) carries a serial number and this movement, from around 1785 looks to be the second earliest of any so far known to have survived. That said, I am left wondering about the earlier watch, No.910, and think this may be a misreading of No.1910. If so, my assumption that Barraud began numbering his first series of pocket watches from a start of number 1000 (a not uncommon practise) would make this movement, no. 1113, the earliest so far known. The full size engraved slide-plate also matches up with numbers 1419 (British Museum) and 1710, both pictured in Jagger´s book.
No. 1232 Barraud London Verge in Gold Pair case outer case gilt and enamel. Centre seconds. (Info Bonham´s)
No. 1328 Barraud London Verge (Info Boggoff)
No. 1601 Movement only Verge. (WWW)
No. 1710.Barraud London unusual quarter seconds cylinder pocket watch. (Info Bonham´s Dec. 13th. 2007)
No. 3225 Barraud London C1798 Verge Case with sweet water Pearls & enamel. (Dr. Crott Archive)
No. 4121 Barruad´s London.c1818 Now in a silver case HM 1844. Cylinder escapement (Info Melbourne Museum)
No. 4591 Barraud, London Movement in a later custom made case of silver. (Info Bonham´s May 18th.2010)
No. 6407 Barraud London (NAWCC notice board)
This list of Barraud, London ends with 6529 as yet. The address on the watches 1800 ca 1820 is Barraud Cornhill London.
No. 7050 London Cornhill London Duplex converted to table roller. (Ebay Sept. 2014)
No. 8860 Barraud Cornhill London Gold case HM 1815. Duplex escapement (Info Invaluable archive)
No. 9047 Barraud Cornhill London 18K Gold case with enamel for Chinese market c1815 (Info Patrizzi ( NY)
N0. 9102 Barraud Cornhill London, same as above. (Info Dr. Crott)
Watches of the kind by Barraud Cornhill London in the 18th.centuary
No. 9035 Barraud Cornhill London Was sold at Sotheby´s Geneva May 15th. 2011. It was in a case described below. It was then sold on Ebay has a movement only, on the 30th. Nov. 2013. Cylinder escapement See below.
No. 9037 Barraud Cornhill London movement only, was in the Landes collection. (Info Bonham´s)
No. 9124 Barraud Cornhill London gold and Enamel musical pocket watch much like No. 9035 (Info Dr, Crott)
No. 9320 Barraud Cornhill London Movement only balances missing. (Info Invaluable Archive)
No. 9591 Barraud Cornhill London c1818 Enamel and Pearl watch for the Chinese market. (Info Invaluable archive)
Again watches by Barraud, Cornhill, and London for the Chinese market.
Let s now take a pause and look at one of the really rare watches by Barraud & Lund. 3/127
This was sold by Sotheby´s at auction in 2015 this is what they had to say about the watch.
“A FINE AND UNUSUAL GOLD OPEN FACED POCKET CHRONOMETER (&)-NO. 3/127”
Frosted gilt and partially skeletonised movement, spring detent escapement, free sprung, bimetallic compensation balance with blued steel helical spring, diamond end-stone, steel detent with separate cock and dovetail adjustment, fusee and chain, glazed covette with winding hole, white enamel dial. Roman numerals, gold spade hands, large subsidiary seconds with blued steel hand, outer minute track, 18K yellow gold engine-turned case with blank central cartouche, gold pendent case with London hallmarks for 1869, case with maker´s mark AS for Alfred Stram, movement signed Barraud & Lund´s, 41 Cornhill, London, No. 3/127, dial signed and numbered, the ebauche with maker´s mark J.P for Joseph Preston & Sons.
This taken from Terence Camera Cuss, The English Watch 1585-1970, pp.406-407, pl. 259
For nearly identical pocket chronometer and extensive discussion of this construction by Barraud´s & Lund´s , see Jagger, Paul Philip Barraud, the supplement” Antiquarian Horological Society 19 Pp.215, 223 pl. XXVII. a-b. Jagger notes that the watch in figs. a,b, is a half chronometer and credits Lund for its invention citing Lund´s Obituary.
Authors note: Researcher´s at that time did not know that Paul Philip Barraud died in 1820. (1979)
Then there is the so called “Earnshaw Series”. It is thought that these watches were made by finisher´s for, Barraud, and in this case it was Thomas Earnshaw. There are only three in Cedric Jagger´s book the “Supplement “. So I will insert them here plus others I have found since.
No. 2/175 Pocket Barraud, Cornhill, London. Vide under second series; fractional numbering, where it as, numerically, part of the true Barraud series. It is exactly comparable, mechanically, with No. 9729 in the original check List, q.v.
No. 7/5227 Pocket movement only Barraud, Cornhill, London. This is wholly in the Earnshaw style and is complete with “sugar tongs” compensation.
No. 28/5612 Pocket From its number, there can be little doubt that this is another of the series which also includes nos. 31/5815 and 32/5816, q.v. No information on it has come to light save that it is listed in W.B.R. 1/12 (5.4.1834).
I found on the net the following;
No. 29/5813 this was for sale at the WINTAGEWATCHSTORE on Ebay. 2013 They said it was an experimental Lever watch. It was not sold, they also said in was in a Gold pair case for 1808 but the information is now only partly available
No. 29/6644 Notice on the NAWCC Notice Board, number not clear-needs verification.
There is an article by Philip Arnott in AHS December 2007. This article is about chronometers on board East Indian company ships. There was a number of Barraud chronometers on these ships, those not in C. Jagger´s books are listed below.
291, 496, 512, 807, 814, 818, 842, 852, 853, 872 and 978.
Also in the above in Mr. Arnott´s article, 1171 and 1319.
Note by Cedric Jagger. “The original check list included an eight-day marine chronometer numbered 999, and this resumes at 1501, but neither list contains any chronometers bearing intermediate numbers. After this length of time, it seems well-nigh certain that there is a deliberate gap of five hundred numbers in the series, but the reason for this not understood at present” (This is in the supplement.)
Further in his book, at this point he is convinced Barraud´s sold chronometers they had only adjusted and were presumably made for them elsewhere. Though he gives little evidence for this statement, it is quite true to say other big names of the period were doing just that, the firms of Dent, Brockbank, Barwise, Frodsham, and many others.
Has said above Barraud No. 1724 is mentioned in C. Jagger´s book as derelict, and we will see that he must have received false information. The chronometer first came to light in an exhibition of chronometers by Asprey´s 7-9 December 1987. The full report by Christies from their auction on the 12th June 1996
BARRAUD TWO_DAY MARRINE CHRONOMETER WITH EXCEPTIONALLY RARE BALANCE.
No. 1724, circa 1845.
Price realized €5,750
Sale information. Sale 5608. 12th. June 1996
A Barraud two-day marine chronometer with exceptionally rare balance No. 1724, circa 1845. The silvered dial signed and numbered BARRAUD 41 Cornhill LONDON 1724. Roman hour numerals subsidiary seconds dial (at XII), aperture up-and-down dial /at VI(, blued steel hands, Earnshaw escapement, cut bimetallic balance now with highly complex auxiliary comprising a curved bimetallic lamination above and spanning the cross-arm and caring at one end two levers with jewelled inclined planes and pivoted brass extension arm, and at the other end a shorter fixed extension arm, segmental heat compensation weights, blued steel helical balance spring, dovetail detent with jewelled locking stone to side of banking block, brass bowl. Gimballed in plain three-tier mahogany box with external brass drop handles, middle section with later bone ivory disc inscribed BARRAU.
97mm. dial diam.
Gould, “The marine chronometer”, 1923, pp, 195-196
Cedric Jagger, Paul Philip Barraud, AHS, 1968, pp, 66.
Barraud & Lund correcting weight with cap.
1724 chronometer was also exhibited at Asprey´s in their “Exhibition of Marine Chronometers 7-19 December 1987.
This one of the most complex chronometer balances ever designed and made; access to certain of the complicated adjusting screws is obtained only through specially drilled holes made in the bimetallic balance rim. Between June- September 1842 it was the subject of correspondence between its designers, Barraud and Lund, and the then astronomer Royal G.B. Airy (RGO 6/585:336-334) This resulted in Barraud & Lund being granted an appointment with Airy at the Royal Observatory on Monday morning 12th. September 1842 when they took with them a colour-wash drawing, op. Cit., of the balance annotated with their explanation of its various complicated adjustments.
In their initial letter dated 20th. June 1842 Barraud & Lund explained that their reason for approaching the astronomer Royal with their invention (sic) was prompted “by the receipt of a pamphlet this morning in which you have already given the subject (changes in rates of chronometers under extremes of temperature) much attention” The pamphlet to which they refer is undoubtedly the Account of Improvements in Chronometers made by R. John Sweetman Eiffe, with an appendix containing Mr. Robert Molyneux´s “specification of a Patent for improvements in Chronometers” This was published by Order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty in 1842. Its introduction having been written by Airy who arranged for its general distribution to chronometer makers
The complex balance now fitted to Barraud No. 1724 confirms to the general design of the one illustrated (RGO 6/565:344) annotated “from Barraud & Lund. Received 1842 Sept. 12 G.B. Airy” A further drawing (RGO 6/585:343 ) was submitted to the Astronomer Royal , it is signed BRRAUD & LUND 41 Cornhill LONDON Nov. 1842 and is annotated “From Messr. Barraud & Lund 1842 Nov. 7 G.B. Airy” .It is not known whether any other examples of this balance are extent; the likelihood is that this is the only one and may have been taken by Barraud & Lund to the Royal Observatory when they had their meeting with the Astronomer Royal referred to above. It has now been fitted in Barraud 1724 of c1840, the movement of which was lacking a balance.
Barraud Cornhill, London. No. 1094.
Delightful small Regency mahogany and ebony inlaid long-case clock. The round painted dial signed Barraud Cornhill London1094 with Roman hour numerals and seconds dial. Mercury gilt brass spade hands, blue steel second´s hand. The superb quality, eight day five pillar movement having substantial plates, Graham type dead beat escapement, Harrison´s maintaining power and strikes the hours on a bell. The back plate is signed Barraud’s Cornhill London. The wood rod pendulum has a heavy brass lenticular bob and silvered calibrated rating nut, brass cased weights with lighter weight for the going side.
The pretty flame mahogany case with chamfer top, ripple cornice mouldings, pierced wood side frets and canted angles flaking fielded brass bound panels to the hood door with finely turned brass bezel. The highly figured arched trunk door with ebony banding flanked by canted sides, elegant stepped mouldings to the base which has an ebony moulding and double plinth.
Height 6ft. 4in (193 cm) Date c1810
Courtesy of Tobias Birch.
Barraud´s, Cornhill, London. No. 868
English regency mahogany chamfer top Bracket clock. The round painted dial is signed Barraud Cornhill LONDON and numbered 868 with Roman hour numerals. The hands are gilt brass. The eight day double chain fusee movement has an anchor escapement and strikes the hours on a bell. The back plate is signed Barraud Cornhill LONDON and has an engraved border.
The flame figured mahogany case with chamfer top and ebonised ripple mouldings. Canted corners and framed inset panels around the cast brass bezel with convex glass.
Height 15 ins. (38cm). Date circa 1815.
Barraud No 868 Courtesy of Tobias Birch.
The wording for this clock is almost identical to that above, so a larger photograph. Courtesy Tobias Birch
Barraud´s Cornhill, London. No. 1299
A fine mahogany drop dial wall timepiece with 13 inch wooden painted dial and eight day fusee movement. The flame figured mahogany case with curve to the wall bottom and opening door below a fielded panel Narrow wood surround with concave cast brass locking bezel. Date c1810. Height 23 inches (59cm) Courtesy of Tobias Birch (No number)
Mahogany balloon-on-case 8 Day time and strike fusee movement Silvered dial 8. 6/8th.in diameter .Signed Barraud Cornhill LONDON. String inlay outlining the base of the balloon case, and the plinth. Brass stringing on all four sides of the base of the balloon case, brass quarter columns in front corners of plinth. Cast brass feet. Rear door of balloon case has a round glass insert. Panel at rear of plinth for access to the pendulum bob Round brass ball finial at top Date c1800-1820
MAKER. Paul Philip Barraud. Material Wood, Brass, glass, steel.
Place of origin. LONDON, England, united Kingdom
NAWCC MUSEUM. Notes A o/o/81 C
Serial Number. None.
I thought it only fair to add a clock from the firm of Barraud & Lund, and put B&L on Google and it came up with no end of clocks by the firm. So I decided to pick out one of their best. I hope those reading this will agree.
This carriage clock was sold by Tennant´s UK. Lot Number 1032
A Gilt Brass Giant carriage Clock with Calendar and Moon-phase Indication
The case with top carrying handle, rectangular glazed platform viewing window, side oval glazed panels, and engine turned panels and floral engraved hinged front door, upon bracket shaped feet, 51/2. Inch engine turned silvered dial with Roman numerals, dial centre with engraved scroll work and bearing inscription Barraud & Lund, London, 1342, moon-phase aperture above 6, arched date aperture and slow/fast lever, twin fusee movement with large later engraved platform lever escapement, sticking on a bell, 29cm. High.
Thoughts on these clocks leave many questions, like, where do they fit in with the numbers released for the chronometers, or the pocket watches. My thoughts at the moment are they don´t fit and these numbers were used on receipts or on separate ledgers.
We now move on to a very interesting clock seen on the NAWCC notice board. It is thought that this clock was specially made to go on board ships to support the chronometer or chronometers on board that ship. That these clocks had a dead beat verge escapement on the lines of the Flamenville escapement invented in c1726 by Painel de Flamenville. (Quote Jonathan Betts) “This was a frictional-rest, dead-beat escapement employing an escape wheel similar to that in a conventional verge escapement, but with drum-like pallets with parallel impulse faces, Thiout remarks, hugely optimistically, that he thought watches with this escapement might keep time to within some seconds in a month, but it is unlikely they would have gone better than the equivalent cylinder-escapement watch, if the balance was of the same type.”
From Thiout´s treatise (1741) Flamenville escapement
The first I knew of this type of clock was when I read an article by the late R.K.Foulkes AHS June 1954 page 29-30. This article was “Captain Cook´s Cabin Clock and its maker William Hughes” Hughes it is reported made at least two of these clocks, though the escapements in these two clocks are different.
It is not relevant to go into the history of Hughes or Captain Cook here, but I will quote what Mr. Foulkes has to say about the clock.
“The cabin clock illustrated is an unusual example of the maker´s work. It has an added interest in that for very many years it has been accepted as having belonged to the celebrated explorer, Captain James Cook and is thought to have accompanied him on the Endeavour. The 8 day movement is fitted with a rack striking mechanism, repeating the hours by release. There are chains in the fusee and all plates are pinned. The going train has a verge escapement mounted on a horizontal platform, the brass balance wheel with its pallet arbour pivoting into a potance fixed to the front plate. The upper pivot has its pivot hole in a “cartwheel” cock with screw-on end-piece and single cook-foot. Regulation is effected by means of the regulator arm, with its calibrated fast and slow scale engraved on the back-plate, gearing to a slide embracing the hair spring. There is no jewelling. The front and pillar plates are unusually sturdy for the size of movement. The break arch dial is mounted with un-pierced cast spandrel pieces, white enamel zones and the hands are metal gilt. The original crank winding key survives. The case, 9.3/4.ins. high and having a break arch top, is of ebonised pear-wood on an oak carcase. The brass rings are attached to the sides for lashing the clock in a fixed position when on board ship.”
For further information on this clock try the Dominion Museum, Wellington New Zealand. (email@example.com,nz)
We then move to the second clock by William Hughes Sold by Carter Marsh & Co. Winchester.
Though this time, as photographs are at hand we should look at the movement first then read the description by Carter Marsh & Co.
“An extraordinary George III travelling table clock one of only two known by Hughes, the other reputedly made for Captain James Cook and accompanying him on the Endeavour.
Height 9.1/2 inches
Case The brass bound and ebonised break-arch case has a triple pad top surmounted by a folding flamed carrying handle with curved base. The doors with brass frames to the glazed apertures and flanked by inset brass corners. The brass bound skirt with ogee bracket feet.
Dial. 4by 51/2 Inch break-arch dial gilt brass dial plate with applied gilt spandrels and set with two fired white enamel dials and finely cut blued steel hands
Movement The twin fusee movement with five baluster pillars and heavy plates, the going train having a Verge and balance wheel escapement with large engraved balance cock and numbered regulation sector below. The hours, governed by a rack and snail, striking on a bell mounted above. The floral and foliate engraved back plate signed to the centre Wiil.m Hughes, High Holborn, London. (8 day).
So now to the Barraud clock based I would say on the two clocks by William Hughes, though here we are treading on thin ice. Again let us look at this clock, and then discuss the nature of a very different and unusual clock. The clock was originally made to hang on a wall, and much later converted to a bracket clock. See the seat below made to take the clock and enable it to stand on a mantel piece.
Of interest is the glass view slot on top of this clock, now if hung on the wall for normal use, what would be the point, when at least you would have to climb onto a stool or small ladder to view the escapement. Again to what point. The clock has a stop start lever on the top of the balance, and just like winding you need access to the rear of the clock to use the lever arm to stop or start the clock. I feel the clock would have been made to fit in a hole through the captain´s cabin wall, through to the cabin boys small room, so that he could look if the clock was running, and when needed to wind, the 8 day clock. You could say but why look, when you can hear it ticking. On a wooden ship in the early nineteenth century on a rising sea, the noise would be so loud, and it would stop you hearing the clock tick.
On the far right, the top lever is to stop or start the clock the lever below is to regulate the clock.
Rear of the Barraud sea clock at the top the regulator, centre to set the minutes, below that to wind the clock, Plus a view of the drum shaped pallets.( I hope to have better photographs of the pallets later) Right the trade mark for Holmden who made the clock for Barraud.
Only a few weeks later we found another of this type of clock, by the firm of Brockbank & Atkins. See below
The likeness of the two clocks is evident, though when the dial is taken off we think the movement will be stamped HOLMDEN LONDON. Has is the case with the Barraud clock.
I could here, delete the above about the Brockbank & Atkins, but feel it is important to see how things can change is a very short time. When the clock arrived it was taken out of the packing, and with one turn of the key it started to run. The movement then was removed though still attached to the dial. The dial was then removed and it was then we got the surprises. There was no trade mark behind the dial saying it had been made by Holmden, plus the escapement was not a verge, but a lever escapement.
Did this clock have a peep hole like the Barraud? There is no indication of such a hole on the top of the case, but on close examination of the original rear door there is a filling at the top centre where such a hole could have been. (see below)
It can also be seen where the door lock on the right was situated and where four holes have also been filled.
What is needed now is some written evidence that these two clocks were used on ships. Anyone reading this who knows of such information, we would be pleased to hear from.
Some views of the lever movement on the Brockbank & Atkins.
Jonathan Betts showing members of the DGC (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chronometrie) 2013 around the Greenwich workshop, on the table examples of some of the museum chronometers[/file]