I've created this this post due to a recent post enquiring around making replacements for worn anchors. Hope it helps anyone thinking of doing that, who has not tried it before. Wear ruts on the impulse faces of an escapement anchor are common place. Sometimes it is possible to move the position of the anchor on its arbour, to introduce unworn areas to the pathway of the escapement wheel teeth. However this may have been done before to the anchor, or the ruts are in a such a place that rules out the use of any unworn area on the impulse face. For example, if the ruts are dead centre of the faces, there may not be enough room for the escapement teeth to land fully, either side of the ruts. Gauge plate tool steel is an ideal material to use to fabricate a new anchor. It is well made to precise thickness and hardens well. The gauge plate below is O1 steel, chosen to fabricate a replacement anchor from an English long case movement. The original anchor had already been repaired historically at some point by grinding down the entry pallet and putting a steel slip on the exit pallet. Neither operation had been done well, and the geometry of the anchor was terrible so I decided to replace. xyzzytom_354534 A hole to allow the anchor arbour to fit snugly through the gauge plate needs to be drilled. Blue the gauge plate but leave some areas unblued where the anchor will sit, to accept the superglue. The anchor can then be super glued to the gauge plate. When it has dried, scribe with a hardened steel sharp scribe accurately around the original. The scribe line will also need to make an impression in the steel itself not just the blue. I use a blue Sharpie pen to blue colour the steel, as I find the engineers blue ink a bit messy. xyzzytom_354539 If you need to use a brass collet to mount the anchor, as in this case, the hole needs then to be enlarged to suit. Now the task of removing excess steel can be done. A combination of saw, mill and files are ideal. Not having a mill does not stop the ability to make these at all. I have made many without a mill, before I bought one. Using a large half round file is the way to go for the underside profile of the anchor. Choosing the right shaped file will go a long way to a good shape and finish when trying to recreate a period style. Once all the excess is removed and you have the basic shape and style you want, you can move on to the impulse faces. If you have taken excess steel off up to the scribe line, and not through or over it, you will have left yourself material for fine adjustments. The anchor will come on and off the arbour numerous times when you are adjusting the impulse faces, as you will need to keep replacing it in the movement and testing its geometry with the escapement wheel. i.e. adjusting the drop off edges and span. Below, the rough impulse face is being made on the mill, however, as mentioned this can be carefully filed with the right technique. You can take steel off, but you can't put it back on! Take a little and test again, take a little and test again. When you are happy with the drops and span, which should be the same as your original anchor if you have scribed and removed steel well, you can then put a finish on your impulse faces. Folk have different techniques to do this. Personally I work up from 1500 grit wet and dry paper all the way through to 7000grit wet and dry, and then finish off with a felt wheel and fine polish. However, that said, I finish off the impulse faces to 2500 grit and then harden the anchor ends (or the whole anchor) and complete the final finish after hardening. Heat until cherry red for approx 20-30 seconds before quenching in either oil or water. In this case oil, given it is O1 steel. Personally I do not trust that because the steel has been cherry red that the steel has reached and maintained the appropriate temperature that will enable hardening at quenching. I have made that mistake before. Personally I always test the steel with a small magnet, if the steel is no longer magnetic, it is ready to be quenched/hardened. A change must occur, where the carbon in the steel must change from carbon pearlite form to a martensite form, which will enable hardening. The magnet test will tell you if this has been accomplished. When quenching the anchor in oil, move it about in the oil as you do so. Oil quenching steel, I find, leaves less scale on the piece and is easier to remove in my experience. The reason I only finish the impulse faces down to 2500 grit before hardening, is because I find that 2500 grit is the finest grit I can get away with using to remove any scale. After this has been removed the anchor can be tempered in order to make it less brittle but still maintain hardness. Most domestic ovens will go to approx 240 deg centigrade (about 464 F), and tempering at that temperature in the oven for an hour is good enough. The steel should appear straw coloured after this. That colouration is easily removed with fine paper. When you are satisfied that the anchor ends or the whole thing is hardened and tempered, then finer and finer grades of wet and dry can be used to finish the impulse faces, followed by a felt polishing wheel and fine polishing compound. I use Menzerna yellow super finish. With a felt wheel, this will give a mirror finish. The desired final finish to the main body of the anchor can be completed and refitted to the arbour, or re-fitted via a brass collet on the arbour. I only harden the ends of long case anchors, in order that in the future a repairer can easily adjust the span if they need to remove surface area from the pallet impulse faces due to wear, with out fear of snapping it when they close the span.